The precipitation of energetic heavy ions into the upper atmosphere of Jupiter

by M. Horanyi

Publisher: National Aeronautics and Space Administration in [Washington, DC?

Written in English
Published: Downloads: 961
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Subjects:

  • Jupiter (Planet) -- Atmosphere.
  • Edition Notes

    StatementM. Horanyi, T.E. Cravens, J.H. Waite, Jr.
    SeriesNASA-TM -- 101155., NASA technical memorandum -- 101155.
    ContributionsCravens, T. E., Waite, J. H., United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
    The Physical Object
    FormatMicroform
    Pagination1 v.
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL15275017M

ionosphere indicates possible precipitation of high energy particles in the region mapped by the Io plasma torus. i. INTRODUCTION Much of what is presently known about the upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Jupiter has been made possible by the successful observations carried out on the. Made mostly of hydrogen ( percent by volume) and helium ( percent), Jupiter is essentially a bottomless atmosphere that, beneath the clouds, transitions into an exotic fluid. x or other species (ions) are affected at higher altitudes by EPP. Changed atmospheric composition is transported downwards into the mesosphere/ upper stratosphere and affects chemical composition there. Auroral to high energetic electrons produce NO x and HO x in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere region (80 – km). They are generated through the excitation of upper atmospheric atoms and molecules by energetic electrons and ions precipitating down from the planet’s magneto-sphere along high-latitude magnetic field lines. Thus auroras are the observed signatures of electrodynamical coupling between a planet’s magnetosphere and iono-sphere.

Electrons and ions with pitch angle w r t magnetic field lines greater than theElectrons and ions with pitch angle w.r.t. magnetic field lines greater than the ‘loss cone angleloss cone angle’ reflect before reaching upper atmosphere and are trapped in the belt Electron fluxes are most intense in: IEltBltf 13t17R Focus of this. The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the plasma mostly consists of electrons, protons and alpha particles with kinetic energy between and 10 composition of the solar wind plasma also includes a mixture of materials found in the solar plasma: trace amounts of heavy ions and atomic nuclei . Properties of Energetic Ions in the Solar Atmosphere Fig. 2 OSSE spectrum of the flare SOLT (X) summarizing the different components and the physics from γ-ray line spectroscopy (from Share and Murphy ).Reproduced by permission of the ASP de-excitation lines are found at MeV from 16O, MeV from 12C, MeV. As the high speed particles from the Sun interact with the gases in the upper atmosphere they cause fluorescence as the outer electrons of the gas molecules are bumped into .

The result is the Io plasma torus (Figure ; see also Figure ), a doughnut-shaped region of energetic heavy ions that follows Io's orbital track, completely encircling Jupiter. (A plasma is a gas that has been heated to such high temperatures that all of its atoms are ionized.). atmosphere The envelope of gases surrounding Earth or another planet. aurora A light display in the sky caused when incoming energetic particles from the sun collide with gas molecules in a planet’s upper atmosphere. The best known of these is . No. Precipitation is actual stuff falling, such as rain, hail, and snow. Lightning is an electrical discharge within the atmosphere or from the atmosphere to the ground. No.   When water molecules rise into the upper atmosphere, sunlight breaks the water into hydrogen ions which are fast and escape easily, and heavier oxygen ions which are carried away by the electric.

The precipitation of energetic heavy ions into the upper atmosphere of Jupiter by M. Horanyi Download PDF EPUB FB2

Evidence for auroral particle precipitation at Jupiter was provided by the ultraviolet spectrometers on board the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft and by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). Magnetospheric measurements made by instruments on board the Voyager spacecraft indicate that energetic sulfur and oxygen ions are precipitating into the upper atmosphere of by: Magnetospheric measurements made by instruments onboard the Voyager spacecraft indicate that energetic sulfur and oxygen ions are precipitating into the upper atmosphere of Jupiter.

We have constructed a theoretical model describing the interaction of precipitating oxygen with the Jovian atmosphere. Evidence for auroral particle precipitation at Jupiter was provided by the ultraviolet spectrometers onboard the Voyagers 1 and 2 spacecraft and by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE).

Magnetospheric measurements made by instruments onboard the Voyager spacecraft show that energetic sulfur and oxygen ions are precipitating into the upper atmosphere of Jupiter.

Evidence for auroral particle precipitation at Jupiter was provided by the ultraviolet spectrometers on board the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft and by the International Ultraviolet Explorer.

Magnetospheric measurements made by instruments on board the Voyager spacecraft indicate that energetic sulfur and oxygen ions are precipitating into the upper atmosphere of Jupiter. To extend the range of data required for modeling the secondary-electron production from ion precipitation into the upper atmosphere of Jupiter, inelastic processes for collisions of 1 keV to 25 MeV H+, H, and H- with H 2 are considered.

As in other work treating the dominant heavy-ion species of magnetospheric origin, O and S ions (Schultz et al.,Author: D.R. Schultz, D.R. Schultz, H. Gharibnejad, Thomas Edward Cravens, S.J. Houston. Jupiter's X-ray aurora has been thought to be excited by energetic sulphur and oxygen ions precipitating from the inner magnetosphere into the planet's polar Cited by: The efficiency of heating the atmosphere of a typical hot Jupiter and the planet Jupiter are considered.

The heating efficiency displays only a weak dependence on the characteristic energy of the precipitating electrons. The heating efficiency for the upper atmosphere of Jupiter is also independent of the height, and lies in the range 7–9%.Cited by: 5.

Strong radial changes in the phase space distribution of heavy ions observed by Voyager indicated that energetic ions are lost inside 12 Rj as they move inward from the Multispectral Observations of Jupiter's Aurora outer by: Energetic particle precipitation from various sources provide energy input into the upper atmosphere, producing NO x and HO x, which destroy ozone.

The NO x is transported to the stratosphere in polar winter, where it can have an even larger : Robert A.

Marshall, Wei Xu, Thomas Woods, Christopher Cully, Allison Jaynes, Cora Randall, Daniel Ba. Origin of energetic electron precipitation >30 keV into the atmosphere Mai Mai Lam,1 Richard B.

Horne,2 Nigel P. Meredith,2 Sarah A. Glauert,2 Tracy Moffat‐Griffin,2 and Janet C. Green3 Received 3 July ; revised 13 October ; accepted 17 November ; published 20 April [1] Energetic electrons are deposited into the atmosphere Cited by:   Remote sensing of Jupiter's aurora from x-ray to radio wavelengths has revealed much about the nature of the jovian aurora and about the impact of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling on Jupiter's upper atmosphere.

Both energetic heavy ions and electrons energized in the outer magnetosphere contribute to the auroral excitation, as indicated by the Author: J. Waite, G. Gladstone, S. Bolton, J. Clarke, Jean-Claude Gérard, W.

Lewis, L. Tra. The old paradigm portrayed Jupiter's magnetosphere as totally dominated by internal processes (i.e. Io related tori, heavy ions, etc.) where energetic heavy ion precipitation in the inner magnetosphere was solely responsible for the observed auroral phenomena.

Energetic nitrogen ions within the inner magnetosphere E. C., Jr., et al. (), Energetic nitrogen ions within the inner magnetosphere of Saturn, J.

Geophys. of energetic heavy ions. As indicated by the combination of x-ray and ultraviolet observations, both energetic heavy ions and electrons energized in the outer magnetosphere contribute to auroral excitation.

Abstract. The ionospheric response to auroral precipitation at the giant planets is reviewed, using models and observations. The emission processes for aurorae at radio, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, and X-ray wavelengths are described, and exemplified using ground- and space-based by: Electron, proton, oxygen, and sulfur energy and pitch angle spectrograms for two separate times over Jupiter's polar region during PJ3.

The colored pixels represent particle intensity with units [cm −2 s −1 sr −1 keV −1]. (a) Signatures of inverted‐V proton and heavy ion distributions centered around by: The upper atmosphere above Jupiter’s Great Red Spot—the largest storm in the Solar System—is hundreds of degrees hotter than anywhere Cited by: Spectral analysis of aurora1 emissions provides a revealing diagnostic of the huge energy input into Jupiter’s atmosphere from aurora1 particle precipitation, the dominant driver of thermospheric processes on a global scale.

Start studying SCIN final exam. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. Barium ions carry a 2+ charge, and nitrogen ions carry a 3-charge.

What is the cause of Jupiter's extremely high-energy radiation belts. The neutral atoms then become ions as their electrons are stripped away by interaction with the upper atmosphere of Jupiter.

Juno also found signatures of a high-energy heavy ion population within the inner edges of Jupiter's relativistic electron radiation belt -- a region dominated by electrons moving close to the speed of light. Abstract: The precipitation of energetic neutral atoms, produced through charge exchange collisions between solar wind ions and thermal atmospheric gases, is investigated for the Martian atmosphere.

Connections between parameters of precipitating fast ions and resulting escape fluxes, altitude-dependent energy distributions of fast atoms and their coefficients of reflection Cited by: The neutral atoms then become ions as their electrons are stripped away by interaction with the upper atmosphere of Jupiter.

Juno also found signatures of a high-energy heavy ion population within the inner edges of Jupiter’s relativistic electron radiation belt — a region dominated by electrons moving close to the speed of light. The precipitation of energetic heavy ions into the upper atmosphere of Jupiter, J.

Geophys. Res. 93,Waite, J. Jr., F. Bagenal, F. Seward, C. Na, G.R. Gladstone, T.E. Cravens, K. Hurley, J. Clarke, R. Eisner, and S. Stem, ROSAT observations of the Jupiter Aurora, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 14,light radiated by atoms and ions in the earth's upper atmosphere due to high-energy particles from the sun; seen mostly in the southern polar regions ejecta blanket the ring of material surrounding a crater that was ejected during the crater-forming impact.

The magnetosphere of Jupiter is the cavity created in the solar wind by the planet's magnetic ing up to seven million kilometers in the Sun's direction and almost to the orbit of Saturn in the opposite direction, Jupiter's magnetosphere is the largest and most powerful of any planetary magnetosphere in the Solar System, and by volume the largest known continuous Discovered by: Pioneer   X-ray emission observed from Jupiter’s polar regions appears to be due to the precipitation of energetic heavy ions from the outer magnetosphere and magnetopause region.

The upcoming NASA mission to Juno will shed much light on Jovian MI : Thomas Cravens. positive ions created by GCR ionization are H 2 + (mass = 2 amu and He+ (mass = 4 amu). These ions undergo series of reactions with neutral atmospheric molecules, yielding heavy ions with masses approaching amu.

The chem-istry that results in the formation of these ions is discussed in Appendix B. In order to assess the effect of the uncer. The metal ions enter the corona when variously sized solar flares destroy the traps, and they are evaporated into flux loops in the upper atmosphere.

Energy releases in solar flares and associated forms of eruptions occur when magnetic field lines, with their powerful underlying electric currents, are twisted beyond a critical point that can be. The atmosphere of Jupiter is classified into four layers, by increasing altitude: the troposphere, stratosphere, thermosphere and the Earth's atmosphere, Jupiter's lacks a mesosphere.

Jupiter does not have a solid surface, and the lowest atmospheric layer, the troposphere, smoothly transitions into the planet's fluid interior. This is a result of having.

The altitude of the ion population driving this ENA emission is unknown but could extend to altitudes above Saturn’s dense atmosphere (> km), similar to the to 1-MeV ions that were recently detected between km above Jupiter’s 1-bar atmospheric level and were possibly generated by the same mechanism (multiple charge Cited by:.

We study this variability under different precipitation conditions and taking into account the variability of the neutral atmosphere with the geomagnetic and solar activity. We find that the energetic electron precipitation has a very small effect on the absolute value of the NO + and NO* production by: 1.

The ions from the belt can penetrate about a millimeter into the ice. Electrons reach roughly a centimeter down, but they also emit high-energy photons that can go as far as a meter deep. Regardless of the type of radiation, these high-energy particles will rip electrons off of molecules, thereby “oxidizing” everything on the surface.The galactic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization in the troposphere of the Earth.

Solar energetic particles of MeV energies cause an excess of ionization in the atmosphere, specifically over polar caps. The ionization effect during the major ground level enhancement 69 on Janu is studied at various time scales.

The estimation of ion rate is based on a recent Cited by: 5.